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《草書諸上座帖》 - 介紹

黃庭堅《草書諸上座帖》為紙本,縱33釐米,橫729.5釐米,此帖系寫給其友李任道的信?,內容為介紹五代時金陵禪宗僧文益的語錄。現藏於故宮博物院。全帖筆劃縱橫飛動,結構移形變位,字字俯仰欹側,如龍飛鳳舞,一氣呵成,神完氣足,純熟之極。  

此帖所書的是法眼宗文益禪師的一段演講錄。帖中首書“上座”是梵文Sthavira的意譯,音譯“悉提那”,是佛教上對有德行的僧人的尊稱。“諸上座”即指各位高僧。

黃山穀在錄寫這段禪宗語錄之後,又自題一則“此是大丈夫出生死事……”,內含禪機,大概是與友人探討參悟,語氣頗為鄭重。但自從《諸上座帖》誕生之日起,它就不僅僅是一篇禪宗語錄,更是一件驚心駭目的法書巨跡。在他相當數量的傳世作品中,《諸上座帖》可稱為其草書的巔峰之作。

《諸上座帖》不僅禪機深邃,書藝卓絕,而且歷代承傳有緒。從帖上鈐押的印章可證,此帖南宋時藏於高宗紹興禦府,後在權相賈似道家,元末曾歸著名文人危素。明代藏著名書畫鑒賞家華夏真賞齋。成化二十三年(1487年),著名書法家李應禎官南京兵部郎中,奉使湖州,道過江西,於石亭寺僧處獲得此卷。他的朋友吳寬遂有機緣觀山谷此帖,並提跋於帖後。入清先由孫承澤收藏,後歸王鴻緒,梁清標有幸先後於孫、王二人處展觀《諸上座帖》,他將前後經過詳細記於題跋中。之後《諸上座帖》進入乾隆內府,又經嘉慶、宣統禦府遞傳。民國間流散出宮,歸著名收藏家張伯駒。張伯駒與夫人潘素於1956年將此帖捐獻國家。

今天,無論是匆匆領略,還是細細品味,《諸上座帖》都會吸引並深深打動我們。筆墨有形,禪機無限,二者正妙合於《諸上座帖》。

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